In export-import activities, shipping and cargo are two important aspects. Therefore, it is essential that you know the terms that are often used in the process. Here we have terms that are often used in shipping and cargo.
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When shipping goods, you will often be confronted with several terms that are often unfamiliar to you. Not to mention the terms that are often used in cargo. In this article, we will provide terms that are divided into 2 categories, shipping and cargo.
Common Shipping Terms in Export-Import Activities
While doing shipping, there are some terms that you must understand first, which are :
1. Packing List
First is packing list. This is published by each exporter every time they carry out export activities. The packing list contains the details of shipper, consignee, notified party (if any), name of goods, number and type of packing, quantity of goods, net weight, gross weight, cubing, and shipping marks.
2. Shipping Marks & Numbers
Second is shipping mark. Inside sthi, there are information on the packaging of the shipped goods.
3. Descriptions of Goods
Third, Commodity Desciptions are descriptions of the goods that must match those in the B / L or AWB document and packing list.
4. LCL (Less than Container Loaded)
Fourth is LCL. Which is a delivery system for goods. Consolidator must haul to fit into a full container, so that there are multiple shippers / consignors in one container.
5. FCL (Full Container Loaded)
Fifth is FCL. Not like LCL, the delivery of goods using one container.
6. Gross Weight (GW)
Sixth is GW. This means gross weight of an item being shipped.
7. Net Weight (NW)
Seventh is NW. This means net weight of an item without packaging.
8. Shipping Schedule
Next one is shipping schedule. This is a schedule of ship/aircraft departures.
9. ETD (Estimated Time of Departure)
Ninth is ETD, which is the estimated time of departure of a ship/aircraft from the port of loading or airport
10. ETA (Estimated Time of Arrival)
ETA stands for Estimated Time of Arrival, which is the estimated time of arrival of ships/aircraft.
11. Delivery Order / DO
After that, there is delivery order. This is a letter issued by the shipper or freight forwarder to the shipper as evidence of taking delivery of empty containers and / or as evidence of delivery of goods from the shipper’s warehouse to warehouse.
Consolidation is a process usually performed by forwarders to combine multiple shipments into one shipment and it is recovered so that 1 container is full. Moreover, this technique reduces the overall cost of shipping.
13. Shipping Instructions
Shipping Instructions are template letters or orders (instructions) for the delivery of goods issued by the shipper to the forwarder for immediate processing from the time the goods are loaded on board until the vessel departs.
14. Ocean Freight (O / F)
This term is the basic freight rate for sea routes. The count is usually per cubic meter or cubic.
15. AFR (Air Freight Rate)
Like OFR, but for airways and the calculation is in kilograms or pounds (lbs).
16. POL (Port of Loading)
The port which is at the place of origin of the goods to be shipped.
17. POD (Port of Discharge)
The port located at the destination of the goods being shipped. This is also often names as port of unloading.
18. EMKL (Ekspedisi Muatan Kapal Laut)
EMKL stands for ship loading expedition.Therefore, this is company engaged in the logistics of shipping goods by sea.
19. EMKU (Ekspedisi Muatan Kapal Udara)
Meanwhile EMKU is a company engaged in the logistics of shipping goods by air. This is an acronym for Air Cargo Expedition.
Last but not least, Tramper is a sea transport pattern that has no clear route or schedule.
Cargo Terms in Export and Import Activities
Besides shipping terms, there is also terms for cargo you must know. Here we have some common terms in cargo below.
Initially, there is demurrage. This is the time for using the container inside the port / container yard from unloading the ship to leaving the port or vice versa.
Then, there is warehouse, where goods are stored without using containers.
3. Stuffing / Loading
After that, there is Stuffing. This is the process of loading export goods into a container or transport truck. The following applies to export activities only.
4. Unstuffing / Unloading
Unlike Stuffing, unstuffing is the process of unloading from a container or transport truck. The following applies to import activities only.
5. Feeder Vessel
Afterward, Feeder Vessel is a transport vessel from the port of loading to the port of transit. This type of ship is small and can only carry about 3000 containers.
6. Mother Vessel
Besides feeder vessel, there is mother vessel. This is a large capacity aircraft carrier/ship that transports cargo from transit ports to destination ports around the world.
7. UTPK (Unit Tempat Penumpukan Peti Kemas)
UPTK in english is an acronym for Container Stacking Place Unit.
Meanwhile, Depo is an empty container stacking place.
9. Open Stack (O / S)
Open Stack is the time when the container / goods are opened, they can be placed in the in the warehouse.
10. Closing Time (C / T)
After open stack, there is also the closing time. This is the time when the entrance / accumulation of goods in the warehouse is closed.
11. Dwelling Time
Dwelling Time is the waiting time for loading and unloading containers. This starts when the container enters the port until it leaves the port (shipping), or when the container comes from the ship until it leaves the port (transport by truck expedition).
Volumetrix compares the actual weight of the goods multiplied by the dimensions of the goods. This involves calculating 2 factors which are heavier whether the goods are heavy or light but take up a lot of space (space requirement). So the expedition or courier calculates which one is the heaviest.
13. Part Of Shipment
Part of Shipment is the delivery of goods by 1 container, where the container consists of the names of the shipper, but with the destination of a consignee.
14. Dry Container
Dry Container is a kind of container used for shipment of standard goods which are not dangerous and are not gaseous or liquid goods or goods requiring special handling.
15. Reefer Container
Besides the dry one, there is reefer container that has temperature control. Usually used for the delivery of products that need to be kept fresh at their destination, such as live fish, live shrimp, fruits, vegetables, etc..
16. Open Top Container
The other kinds of containers is the Open Top one. This is a container where the top can be opened/folded. This container is usually used for shipping goods whose height exceeds the standard height of the dry container.
17. Flat Rack Container
Above all, there is the flat rack container with the right and left sides open. This container is usually used for shipment of goods whose width exceeds the standard width of dry container.
18. CFS (Container Free Station)
CFS is the field / place of stocking goods for delivery of LCL instead of FCL.
19. CY (Container Yard)
This is the name for the stacking of containers at the dock / port.
20. TEU (Twenty Feet Equivalent Unit)
Then, TEU is a unit used to measure cargo capacity for container ships and container terminals.
Then, this is the sealing of the container.
At last, detention is the period of time for the use of a container outside the port. This period happens between the depot out of the shipping company’s container to the entry into the port gate (depot in) or from the port exit (depot out) to the entry of the container into the shipping company’s container storage (depot in).
By having knowlodge about these shipping and cargo terms, it is going to benefit you in the future. Especially if you want to take your business seriously. To help you further, do not hesitate to contact us as we are professionals in handling export – import activities. Also, do not forget to also check out our platform here.